Year 1Year 2Year 3Year 4
use regular plural noun suffixes -s or -es e.g. dog, dogs; wish, wishes, including the effects of these suffixes on the meaning of the nounform nouns using suffixes such as -ness, -er and by compounding e.g. whiteboard, supermanform nouns using a range of prefixes e.g. super-, anti-, auto-understands the grammatical difference between plural and possessive -s
use suffixes that can be added to verbs where no change is needed in the spelling of root words e.g. helping, helped, helperform adjectives using suffixes such as -ful, -lessuse the forms a or an according to whether the next word begins with a consonant or a vowel e.g. a rock, an open boxuse standard English forms for verb inflections instead of local spoken forms e.g. we were instead of we was, or I did instead of I done
understand how the prefix un- changes the meaning of verbs and adjectives e.g. negation, for example, unkind, or undoing: untie the boatuse suffixes -er, -est in adjectives and use -ly to turn adjectives into adverbs e.g. smoothly, softly, bigger, biggestidentify Word families based on common root words e.g. solve, solution, solver, dissolve, insolubleuse noun phrases expanded by the addition of modifying adjectives, nouns and preposition phrases e.g. the teacher expanded to: the strict maths teacher with curly hair
understand how words can combine to make sentencesuse subordination (using when, if, that, because) and co-ordination (using or, and, but)express time, place and cause using conjunctions e.g. when, before, after, while, so, because, adverbs e.g. then, next, soon, therefore, or prepositions e.g. before, after, during, in, because ofuse fronted adverbials e.g. Later that day, I heard the bad news.
use joining words and join clauses using anduse expanded noun phrases for description and specification e.g. the blue butterfly, plain flour, the man in the moonbegin to use paragraphs as a way to group related materialuse paragraphs to organise ideas around a theme
sequence sentences to form short narrativesunderstand how the grammatical patterns in a sentence indicate its function as a statement, question, exclamation or commanduse headings and sub-headings to aid presentationmake the appropriate choice of pronoun or noun within and across sentences to aid cohesion and avoid repetition
separate words with spacesmake the correct choice and make consistent use of present tense and past tense throughout writinguse the present perfect form of verbs instead of the simple past e.g. He has gone out to play contrasted with He went out to playuse inverted commas and other punctuation to indicate direct speech e.g. a comma after the reporting clause; end punctuation within inverted commas: The conductor shouted, Sit down!
use capital letters, full stops, question marks and exclamation marks to demarcate sentences in some of his/her writinguse the progressive form of verbs in the present and past tense to mark actions in progress e.g. she is drumming, he was shoutingbegin to use inverted commas to punctuate direct speechuse apostrophes to mark plural possession e.g. the girl's name, the girls' names
use a capital letter for names of people, places, the days of the week, and the personal pronoun Iuse capital letters, full stops, question marks and exclamation marks to demarcate sentences consistently in his/her writingunderstand the following terminology: Preposition, conjunction. Word family, prefix. Clause, subordinate clause. Direct speech. Consonant, consonant letter vowel, vowel letter. Inverted commas (or 'speech marks').use commas after fronted adverbials
understand the following terminology: Letter, capital letter. Word, singular, plural. Sentence. Punctuation, full stop, question mark, exclamation markuse commas to separate items in a listunderstand the following terminology: Determiner. Pronoun, possessive pronoun. Adverbial
use apostrophes to mark where letters are missing in spelling and to mark singular possession in nouns e.g. the girl's name
understand the following terminology: Noun, noun phrase. Statement, question, exclamation, command. Compound, suffix. Adjective, adverb, verb. Tense (past, present). Apostrophe, comma